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A More Convenient NotationAuthor: E.E. Kimberly The terms horizontal component and vertical component become burdensome. Also in some cases the axis of reference is neither vertical nor horizontal as seen by the observer. In mathematics, vectors are frequently expressed in what is called complex notation and the vector is called a complex quantity or complex number. The quantity is not really complex in the usual sense, but it is called complex because it is composed of two parts corresponding to the horizontal component and the vertical component or, as they are sometimes called, the inphase component and the quadrature component. The general mathematical form used is a+jb, in which a is the inphase component and b is the quadrature component. These inphase and quadrature components by definition correspond to the horizontal and vertical components, respectively, as previously used. The prefix j indicates that b is a component to be added to a at an angle of 90° counterclockwise. The significance of j is illustrated in Figs. 45 and 46.
The prefix j is usually defined as an operator which rotates counterclockwise through 90° any vector by which it is multiplied. The operator j is the same as the mathematician's imaginary number i which is . A function expressed in complex form is usually designated by a dot above it; thus, E = Ea+jEb. However, a generally accepted negligence has resulted in omission of the dot where such omission will not result in confusion. Example 43.  Solve Example 42 by using complex notation. Solution.  The given vectors are expressed as follows: Therefore,


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