Lectures on Physics has been derived from Benjamin Crowell's Light and Matter series of free introductory textbooks on physics. See the editorial for more information....

# Work in Three Dimensions

### A force perpendicular to the motion does no work.

Suppose work is being done to change an object's kinetic energy. A force in the same direction as its motion will speed it up, and a force in the opposite direction will slow it down. As we have already seen, this is described as doing positive work or doing negative work on the object. All the examples discussed up until now have been of motion in one dimension, but in three dimensions the force can be at any angle θ with respect to the direction of motion.

 A force can do positive, negative, or zero work, depending on its direction relative to the direction of the motion.

What if the force is perpendicular to the direction of motion? We have already seen that a force perpendicular to the motion results in circular motion at constant speed. The kinetic energy does not change, and we conclude that no work is done when the force is perpendicular to the motion.

So far we have been reasoning about the case of a single force acting on an object, and changing only its kinetic energy. The result is more generally true, however. For instance, imagine a hockey puck sliding across the ice. The ice makes an upward normal force, but does not transfer energy to or from the puck.

Last Update: 2010-11-11