Lectures on Physics has been derived from Benjamin Crowell's Light and Matter series of free introductory textbooks on physics. See the editorial for more information....

# Summary - Momentum

If two objects interact via a force, Newton's third law guarantees that any change in one's velocity vector will be accompanied by a change in the other's which is in the opposite direction. Intuitively, this means that if the two objects are not acted on by any external force, they cannot cooperate to change their overall state of motion. This can be made quantitative by saying that the quantity m1v1 + m2v2 must remain constant as long as the only forces are the internal ones between the two objects. This is a conservation law, called the conservation of momentum, and like the conservation of energy, it has evolved over time to include more and more phenomena unknown at the time the concept was invented. The momentum of a material object is

p = mv ,

but this is more like a standard for comparison of momenta rather than a definition. For instance, light has momentum, but has no mass, and the above equation is not the right equation for light. The law of conservation of momentum says that the total momentum of any closed system, i.e., the vector sum of the momentum vectors of all the things in the system, is a constant.

An important application of the momentum concept is to collisions, i.e., interactions between moving objects that last for a certain amount of time while the objects are in contact or near each other. Conservation of momentum tells us that certain outcomes of a collision are impossible, and in some cases may even be sufficient to predict the motion after the collision. In other cases, conservation of momentum does not provide enough equations to find all the unknowns. In some collisions, such as the collision of a superball with the floor, very little kinetic energy is converted into other forms of energy, and this provides one more equation, which may suffice to predict the outcome.

The total momentum of a system can be related to its total mass and the velocity of its center of mass by the equation

ptotal = mtotalvcm .

The center of mass, introduced on an intuitive basis in book 1 as the balance point of an object, can be generalized to any system containing any number of objects, and is defined mathematically as the weighted average of the positions of all the parts of all the objects,

with similar equations for the y and z coordinates.

The frame of reference moving with the center of mass of a closed system is always a valid inertial frame, and many problems can be greatly simplified by working them in the inertial frame. For example, any collision between two objects appears in the c.m. frame as a head-on one-dimensional collision.

When a system is not closed, the rate at which momentum is transferred in or out is simply the total force being exerted externally on the system. If the force is constant,

When the force is not constant, the force equals the slope of the tangent line on a graph of p versus t, and the change in momentum equals the area under the F - t graph.

Last Update: 2009-06-21