Lectures on Physics has been derived from Benjamin Crowell's Light and Matter series of free introductory textbooks on physics. See the editorial for more information....

# Summary - Charges

All the forces we encounter in everyday life boil down to two basic types: gravitational forces and electrical forces. A force such as friction or a "sticky force" arises from electrical forces between individual atoms.

Just as we use the word "mass" to describe how strongly an object participates in gravitational forces, we use the word "charge" for the intensity of its electrical forces. There are two types of charge. Two charges of the same type repel each other, but objects whose charges are different attract each other. Charge is measured in units of coulombs (C).

Mobile charged particle model: A great many phenomena are easily understood if we imagine matter as containing two types of charged particles, which are at least partially able to move around.

Positive and negative charge: Ordinary objects that have not been specially prepared have both types of charge spread evenly throughout them in equal amounts. The object will then tend not to exert electrical forces on any other object, since any attraction due to one type of charge will be balanced by an equal repulsion from the other. (We say "tend not to" because bringing the object near an object with unbalanced amounts of charge could cause its charges to separate from each other, and the force would no longer cancel due to the unequal distances.) It therefore makes sense to describe the two types of charge using positive and negative signs, so that an unprepared object will have zero total charge.

The Coulomb force law states that the magnitude of the electrical force between two charged particles is given by |F| = k |q1| |q2| / r2.

Conservation of charge: An even more fundamental reason for using positive and negative signs for charge is that with this definition the total charge of a closed system is a conserved quantity.

Quantization of charge: Millikan's oil drop experiment showed that the total charge of an object could only be an integer multiple of a basic unit of charge (e). This supported the idea the the "flow" of electrical charge was the motion of tiny particles rather than the motion of some sort of mysterious electrical fluid.

Einstein's analysis of Brownian motion was the first definitive proof of the existence of atoms. Thomson's experiments with vacuum tubes demonstrated the existence of a new type of microscopic particle with a very small ratio of mass to charge. Thomson correctly interpreted these as building blocks of matter even smaller than atoms: the first discovery of subatomic particles. These particles are called electrons.

The above experimental evidence led to the first useful model of the interior structure of atoms, called the raisin cookie model. In the raisin cookie model, an atom consists of a relatively large, massive, positively charged sphere with a certain number of negatively charged electrons embedded in it.

Last Update: 2009-06-21