Lectures on Physics has been derived from Benjamin Crowell's Light and Matter series of free introductory textbooks on physics. See the editorial for more information....

Suppose a converging lens is constructed of a type of plastic whose
index of refraction is less than that of water. How will the lens's behavior
be different if it is placed underwater?

2

There are two main types of telescopes, refracting (using lenses) and
reflecting (using mirrors). (Some telescopes use a mixture of the two types
of elements: the light first encounters a large curved mirror, and then goes
through an eyepiece that is a lens.) What implications would the colordependence
of focal length have for the relative merits of the two types of
telescopes? What would happen with white starlight, for example?

3

Based on Snell's law, explain why rays of light passing through the edges
of a converging lens are bent more than rays passing through parts closer
to the center. It might seem like it should be the other way around, since
the rays at the edge pass through less glass - shouldn't they be affected
less?

4

When you take pictures with a camera, the distance between the lens
and the film has to be adjusted, depending on the distance at which you
want to focus. This is done by moving the lens. If you want to change
your focus so that you can take a picture of something farther away, which
way do you have to move the lens? Explain using ray diagrams. [Based on
a problem by Eric Mazur.]

5

(a) Light is being reflected diffusely from an object 1.000 m under
water. The light that comes up to the surface is refracted at the water-air
interface. If the refracted rays all appear to come from the same point,
then there will be a virtual image of the object in the water, above the
object's actual position, which will be visible to an observer above the
water. Consider three rays, A, B and C, whose angles in the water with
respect to the normal are θ_{i}=0.000°, 1.000° and 20.000° respectively.
Find the depth of the point at which the refracted parts of A and B appear
to have intersected, and do the same for A and C. Show that the intersections
are at nearly the same depth, but not quite. [Check: The difference
in depth should be about 4 cm.]

(b) Since all the refracted rays do not quite appear to have come from the
same point, this is technically not a virtual image. In practical terms, what
effect would this have on what you see?

(c) In the case where the angles are all small, use algebra and trig to show
that the refracted rays do appear to come from the same point, and find an
equation for the depth of the virtual image. Do not put in any numerical
values for the angles or for the indices of refraction - just keep them as
symbols. You will need the approximation ximation sin θ ≈ tan θ ≈ θ , which is
valid for small angles measured in radians.

*

6

The drawing shows the anatomy of the human eye, at twice life
size. Find the radius of curvature of the outer surface of the cornea by
measurements on the figure, and then derive the focal length of the aircornea
interface, where almost all the focusing of light occurs. You will
need to use physical reasoning to modify the lensmaker's equation for the
case where there is only a single refracting surface. Assume that the index
of refraction of the cornea is essentially that of water.

* √

7

When swimming underwater, why is your vision made much clearer by
wearing goggles with flat pieces of glass that trap air behind them? [Hint:
You can simplify your reasoning by considering the special case where you
are looking at an object far away, and along the optic axis of the eye.]

8

The figure shows four lenses. Lens 1 has two spherical surfaces. Lens 2
is the same as lens 1 but turned around. Lens 3 is made by cutting
through lens 1 and turning the bottom around. Lens 4 is made by cutting
a central circle out of lens 1 and recessing it.

(a) A parallel beam of light enters lens 1 from the left, parallel to its axis.
Reasoning based on Snell's law, will the beam emerging from the lens be
bent inward or outward, or will it remain parallel to the axis? Explain
your reasoning. [Hint: It may be helpful to make an enlarged drawing of
one small part of the lens, and apply Snell's law at both interfaces. Recall
that rays are bent more if they come to the interface at a larger angle with
respect to the normal.]

(b) What will happen with lenses 2, 3, and 4? Explain. Drawings are not
necessary.

9

Prove that the principle of least time leads to Snell's law.

∫ *

10

An object is more than one focal length from a converging lens. (a)
Draw a ray diagram. (b) Using reasoning like that developed in the
previous chapter, determine the positive and negative signs in the equation

(c) The images of the rose in section 4.2 were made using a
lens with a focal length of 23 cm. If the lens is placed 80 cm from the rose,
locate the image.

√

11

An object is less than one focal length from a converging lens. (a)
Draw a ray diagram. (b) Using reasoning like that developed in the
previous chapter, determine the positive and negative signs in the equation

(c) The images of the rose in section 4.2 were made using a
lens with a focal length of 23 cm. If the lens is placed 10 cm from the rose,
locate the image.

√

12

Nearsighted people wear glasses whose lenses are diverging. (a)
Draw a ray diagram. For simplicity pretend that there is no eye behind the
glasses. (b) Using reasoning like that developed in the previous chapter,
determine the positive and negative signs in the equation

(c) If the focal length of the lens is 50.0 cm, and the person is looking at
an object at a distance of 80.0 cm, locate the image.

√

13

Two standard focal lengths for camera lenses are 50 mm (standard)
and 28 mm (wide-angle). To see how the focal lengths relate to the angular
size of the field of view, it is helpful to visualize things as represented in the
figure. Instead of showing many rays coming from the same point on the
same object, as we normally do, the figure shows two rays from two
different objects. Although the lens will intercept infinitely many rays
from each of these points, we have shown only the ones that pass through
the center of the lens, so that they suffer no angular deflection. (Any
angular deflection at the front surface of the lens is canceled by an opposite
deflection at the back, since the front and back surfaces are parallel at
the lens's center.) What is special about these two rays is that they are
aimed at the edges of one 35-mm-wide frame of film; that is, they show
the limits of the field of view. Throughout this problem, we assume that d_{o}
is much greater than d_{i}. (a) Compute the angular width of the camera's
field of view when these two lenses are used. (b) Use small-angle approximations
to find a simplified equation for the angular width of the field of
view, θ, in terms of the focal length, f, and the width of the film, w. Your
equation should not have any trig functions in it. Compare the results of
this approximation with your answers from part a.. (c) Suppose that we are
holding constant the aperture (amount of surface area of the lens being
used to collect light). When switching from a 50-mm lens to a 28-mm
lens, how many times longer or shorter must the exposure be in order to
make a properly developed picture, i.e. one that is not under- or overexposed?
[Based on a problem by Arnold Arons.]

S

14

A nearsighted person is one whose eyes focus light too strongly, and
who is therefore unable to relax the lens inside her eye sufficiently to form
an image on her retina of an object that is too far away.

(a) Draw a ray diagram showing what happens when the person tries, with
uncorrected vision, to focus at infinity.

(b) What type of lenses do her glasses have? Explain.

(c) Draw a ray diagram showing what happens when she wears glasses.
Locate both the image formed by the glasses and the final image.

(d) Suppose she sometimes uses contact lenses instead of her glasses. Does
the focal length of her contacts have to be less than, equal to, or greater
than that of her glasses? Explain.

15

Diamond has an index of refraction of 2.42, and part of the reason
diamonds sparkle is that this encourages a light ray to undergo many total
internal reflections before it emerges. Calculate the critical angle at which
total internal reflection occurs in diamond. Explain the interpretation of
your result: Is it measured from the normal, or from the surface? Is it a
minimum, or a maximum? How would the critical angle have been
different for a substance such as glass or plastic, with a lower index of
refraction?

16

Fred's eyes are able to focus on things as close as 5.0 cm. Fred holds a
magnifying glass with a focal length of 3.0 cm at a height of 2.0 cm above
a flatworm. (a) Locate the image, and find the magnification. (b) Without
the magnifying glass, from what distance would Fred want to view the
flatworm to see its details as well as possible? With the magnifying glass?
(c) Compute the angular magnification.