Lectures on Physics has been derived from Benjamin Crowell's Light and Matter series of free introductory textbooks on physics. See the editorial for more information....

# Summary - Matter as a Wave

Light is both a particle and a wave. Matter is both a particle and a wave. The equations that connect the particle and wave properties are the same in all cases:

E = hf

p = h/λ

Unlike the electric and magnetic fields that make up a photonwave, the electron wavefunction is not directly measurable. Only the square of the wavefunction, which relates to probability, has direct physical significance.

A particle that is bound within a certain region of space is a standing wave in terms of quantum physics. The two equations above can then be applied to the standing wave to yield some important general observations about bound particles:

1. The particle's energy is quantized (can only have certain values).

2. The particle has a minimum energy.

3. The smaller the space in which the particle is confined, the higher its kinetic energy must be.

These immediately resolve the difficulties that classical physics had encountered in explaining observations such as the discrete spectra of atoms, the fact that atoms don't collapse by radiating away their energy, and the formation of chemical bonds.

A standing wave confined to a small space must have a short wavelength, which corresponds to a large momentum in quantum physics. Since a standing wave consists of a superposition of two traveling waves moving in opposite directions, this large momentum should actually be interpreted as an equal mixture of two possible momenta: a large momentum to the left, or a large momentum to the right. Thus it is not possible for a quantum wave-particle to be confined to a small space without making its momentum very uncertain. In general, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is not possible to know the position and momentum of a particle simultaneously with perfect accuracy. The uncertainties in these two quantities must satisfy the approximate inequality

When an electron is subjected to electric forces, its wavelength cannot be constant. The "wavelength" to be used in the equation p = h/λ should be thought of as the wavelength of the sine wave that most closely approximates the curvature of the wavefunction at a specific point.

Infinite curvature is not physically possible, so realistic wavefunctions cannot have kinks in them, and cannot just cut off abruptly at the edge of a region where the particle's energy would be insufficient to penetrate according to classical physics. Instead, the wavefunction "tails off" in the classically forbidden region, and as a consequence it is possible for particles to "tunnel" through regions where according to classical physics they should not be able to penetrate. If this quantum tunneling effect did not exist, there would be no fusion reactions to power our sun, because the energies of the nuclei would be insufficient to overcome the electrical repulsion between them.

#### Exploring Further

The New World of Mr. Tompkins: George Gamow's Classic Mr. Tompkins in Paperback, George Gamow. Mr. Tompkins finds himself in a world where the speed of light is only 30 miles per hour, making relativistic effects obvious. Later parts of the book play similar games with Planck's constant.

The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe, Steven Weinberg. Surprisingly simple ideas allow us to understand the infancy of the universe surprisingly well.

Three Roads to Quantum Gravity, Lee Smolin. The greatest embarrassment of physics today is that we are unable to fully reconcile general relativity (the theory of gravity) with quantum mechanics. This book does a good job of introducing the lay reader to a difficult, speculative subject, and showing that even though we don't have a full theory of quantum gravity, we do have a clear outline of what such a theory must look like.

Last Update: 2010-11-11