The ebook FEEE - Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering and Electronics is based on material originally written by T.R. Kuphaldt and various co-authors. For more information please read the copyright pages.

Calculus Reference

Limits, calculus

Derivative of a constant

("c" being a constant)

Derivative of power and log functions

Derivative of e functions


Trigonometric derivatives

Derivative rules

Constant rule

Rule of sums

Rule of differences

Product rule

Quotient rule

Power rule

Functions of other functions

Antiderivatives Integral, indefinite

Notice something important here: taking the derivative of f(x) may precisely give you g(x), but taking the antiderivative of g(x) does not necessarily give you f(x) in its original form. Example:

Note that the constant c is unknown! The original function f(x) could have been 3x2 + 5, 3x2 + 10, 3x2 + anything, and the derivative of f(x) would have still been 6x. Determining the antiderivative of a function, then, is a bit less certain than determining the derivative of a function.


Antiderivative of e functions

Note: this is a very unique and useful property of e. As in the case of derivatives, the antiderivative of such a function is that same function. In the case of the antiderivative, a constant term "c" is added to the end as well.

Rules for antiderivatives

Constant rule

Rule of sums

Rule of differences

Integral, definite


Differential Equations

As opposed to normal equations where the solution is a number, a differential equation is one where the solution is actually a function, and which at least one derivative of that unknown function is part of the equation.

General solution Particular solution Independent variable

As with finding antiderivatives of a function, we are often left with a solution that encompasses more than one possibility (consider the many possible values of the constant "c" typically found in antiderivatives). The set of functions which answer any differential equation is called the "general solution" for that differential equation. Any one function out of that set is referred to as a "particular solution" for that differential equation. The variable of reference for differentiation and integration within the differential equation is known as the "independent variable."

Last Update: 2010-11-19