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Power Output
It should be emphasized that I_{L} represents the average value of onehalf of the load current wave. However, in expressing the power expended in a resistance, the square of the effective value of the current is multiplied by the value of the resistance. The ratio of effective to average value of a periodic current or voltage is called the form factor k_{f}, which is 1.11 for a sinusoid. The effective value of the load current is therefore
and if the load resistance is R_{L} ohms, the output is
For a given ac source voltage V, the output current is a maximum when α = 0, and, if the leakage reactance is neglected, the maximum output current is
where R'_{G} is the resistance of the gate circuit, which, in the case of the parallel connection, is the resistance of each gate winding, and for the series connection is twice the resistance of each gate winding. The ac source voltage is assumed to be sinusoidal; therefore, the output current is sinusoidal when α = 0 and k_{f} = 1.11. The maximum power output is, therefore, approximately
Form factor When the leakage impedance of the gate windings is neglected, the average value of the output current to a noninductive load resistance is expressed by Eq. 725, as follows
The effective rms value of the load current is
and the form factor is the ratio of Eq. 732 to Eq. 731. This ratio can be reduced to


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