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## Two-Sample t-TestSmall Sample Size

When the sample size is small, the assumption of the central limit theorem does not hold, since the estimates of  s2 become unreliable. One therefore has to resort to the t-distribution. The t-test requires some constraints to be fulfilled:

• the variances have to be equal
• the samples have to be independent of each other
• the samples have to follow a normal distribution
Since we assume that s12 and s22 are equal, we can compute a pooled variance sp2. The rational for pooling the variances is to obtain a better estimate. The pooled variance is a weighted sum of variances. So when n1 equals n2, sp2 is just the average of the individual variances. The overall degree of freedom is the sum of the individual degrees of freedom for the two samples:
df = df1 +df2 = (n1-1) + (n2-1) = n1+ n2 - 2.
In order to apply a two-sample t-test you should follow the scheme shown below:

Last Update: 2005-Jul-16