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Contributing Factors

Author: Leonard Krugman

In general, transistor oscillators make use of their non-linear characteristics. While there has been considerable progress made in the mathematical analysis of non-linear circuits, particularly in the past few years, oscillator design is invariably based on the static characteristic curves. This is true since even the simplest mathematical approximations of non-linear operation are too involved for the average experimenter or engineer to handle.

When the operating frequency becomes more than 100 kc, the internal transistor parameters can no longer be considered as simple resistances. At this frequency, the values of the transistor reactive components become appreciable. In addition to the fixed-resonant circuit parameters, there are also stray reactances due to lead inductance, and others that have a considerable effect on the transistor characteristics. Static curves, then, are extremely useful to set bias points, and to approximate the negative-resistance range, optimum load, and waveshapes. However, circuit values based on the low-frequency transistor characteristics are not exact. The experimenter finds that every high-frequency transistor oscillator requires some readjustment for optimum operation.

Last Update: 2007-03-22