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Internet Link Optimization
As mentioned earlier, network throughput of up to 22Mbps can be achieved by using standard, unlicensed 802.11g wireless gear. This amount of bandwidth will likely be at least an order of magnitude higher than that provided by your Internet link, and should be able to comfortably support many simultaneous Internet users.
But if your primary Internet connection is through a VSAT link, you will encounter some performance issues if you rely on default TCP/IP parameters. By optimizing your VSAT link, you can significantly improve response times when accessing Internet hosts.
TCP/IP factors over a satellite connection
A VSAT is often referred to as a long fat pipe network. This term refers to factors that affect TCP/IP performance on any network that has relatively large bandwidth, but high latency. Most Internet connections in Africa and other parts of the developing world are via VSAT. Therefore, even if a university gets its connection via an ISP, this section might apply if the ISP's connection is via VSAT. The high latency in satellite networks is due to the long distance to the satellite and the constant speed of light. This distance adds about 520 ms to a packet's round-trip time (RTT), compared to a typical RTT between Europe and the USA of about 140 ms.
The factors that most significantly impact TCP/IP performance are long RTT, large bandwidth delay product, and transmission errors.
Generally speaking, operating systems that support modern TCP/IP implementations should be used in a satellite network. These implementations support the RFC 1323 extensions:
Long round-trip time (RTT)
Satellite links have an average RTT of around 520ms to the first hop. TCP uses the slow-start mechanism at the start of a connection to find the appropriate TCP/IP parameters for that connection. Time spent in the slow-start stage is proportional to the RTT, and for a satellite link it means that TCP stays in slow-start mode for a longer time than would otherwise be the case. This drastically decreases the throughput of short-duration TCP connections. This can be seen in the way that a small website might take surprisingly long to load, but when a large file is transferred acceptable data rates are achieved after a while.
Furthermore, when packets are lost, TCP enters the congestion-control phase, and owing to the higher RTT, remains in this phase for a longer time, thus reducing the throughput of both short-and long-duration TCP connections.
Large bandwidth-delay product
The amount of data in transit on a link at any point of time is the product of bandwidth and the RTT. Because of the high latency of the satellite link, the bandwidth-delay product is large. TCP/IP allows the remote host to send a certain amount of data in advance without acknowledgment. An acknowledgment is usually required for all incoming data on a TCP/IP connection. However, the remote host is always allowed to send a certain amount of data without acknowledgment, which is important to achieve a good transfer rate on large bandwidth-delay product connections. This amount of data is called the TCP window size. The window size is usually 64KB in modern TCP/IP implementations.
On satellite networks, the value of the bandwidth-delay product is important. To utilize the link fully, the window size of the connection should be equal to the bandwidth-delay product. If the largest window size allowed is 64KB, the maximum theoretical throughput achievable via satellite is (window size) / RTT, or 64KB / 520 ms. This gives a maximum data rate of 123KB/s, which is 984 Kbps, regardless of the fact that the capacity of the link may be much greater.
Each TCP segment header contains a field called advertised window, which specifies how many additional bytes of data the receiver is prepared to accept. The advertised window is the receiver's current available buffer size. The sender is not allowed to send more bytes than the advertised window. To maximize performance, the sender should set its send buffer size and the receiver should set its receive buffer size to no less than the bandwidth-delay product. This buffer size has a maximum value of 64KB in most modern TCP/IP implementations.
To overcome the problem of TCP/IP stacks from operating systems that don't increase the window size beyond 64KB, a technique known as TCP ac-knowledgment spoofing can be used (see Performance Enhancing Proxy, below).
In older TCP/IP implementations, packet loss is always considered to have been caused by congestion (as opposed to link errors). When this happens, TCP performs congestion avoidance, requiring three duplicate ACKs or slow start in the case of a timeout. Because of the long RTT value, once this congestion-control phase is started, TCP/IP on satellite links will take a longer time to return to the previous throughput level. Therefore errors on a satellite link have a more serious effect on the performance of TCP than over low latency links. To overcome this limitation, mechanisms such as Selective Acknowledgment (SACK) have been developed. SACK specifies exactly those packets that have been received, allowing the sender to retransmit only those segments that are missing because of link errors.
The Microsoft Windows 2000 TCP/IP Implementation Details White Paper states
SACK has been a standard feature in Linux and BSD kernels for quite some time. Be sure that your Internet router and your ISP's remote side both support SACK.
Implications for Universities
If a site has a 512 Kbps connection to the Internet, the default TCP/IP settings are likely sufficient, because a 64 KB window size can fill up to 984 Kbps. But if the university has more than 984 Kbps, it might in some cases not get the full bandwidth of the available link due to the "long fat pipe network" factors discussed above. What these factors really imply is that they prevent a single machine from filling the entire bandwidth. This is not a bad thing during the day, because many people are using the bandwidth. But if, for example, there are large scheduled downloads at night, the administrator might want those downloads to make use of the full bandwidth, and the "long fat pipe network" factors might be an obstacle. This may also become critical if a significant amount of your network traffic routes through a single tunnel or VPN connection to the other end of the VSAT link.
Administrators might consider taking steps to ensure that the full bandwidth can be achieved by tuning their TCP/IP settings. If a university has implemented a network where all traffic has to go through the proxy (enforced by network layout), then the only machines that make connections to the Internet will be the proxy and mail servers.
For more information, see www.psc.edu/networking/perf_tune.html .
Performance-enhancing proxy (PEP)
The idea of a Performance-enhancing proxy is described in RFC 3135, and would be a proxy server with a large disk cache that has RFC 1323 extensions, among other features. A laptop has a TCP session with the PEP at the ISP. That PEP, and the one at the satellite provider, communicate using a different TCP session or even their own proprietary protocol. The PEP at the satellite provider gets the files from the web server. In this way, the TCP session is split, and thus the link characteristics that affect protocol performance (long fat pipe factors) are overcome (by TCP acknowledgment spoofing, for example). Additionally, the PEP makes use of proxying and pre-fetching to accelerate web access further.
Such a system can be built from scratch using Squid, for example, or purchased "off the shelf" from a number of vendors.
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