||Strong acids have a higher percent ionization than do weak acids. Why don't we use percent ionization as a measure of acid strength, rather than Ka?
||Using the data in table 4 for nitrous acid, plot [H3O+] versus c0, the initial concentration of the acid, and versus [HNO2] the equilibrium concentration of the acid. On a second graph, plot [H3O+]2 versus c0, the initial concentration of the acid, and versus [HNO2] the equilibrium concentration of the acid. Which of these results gives a straight line? Using the equilibrium constant expression, explain your answer.
||Using Le Châtelier's principle, explain why the concentration of [OH-] is much lower in acidic solution than it is in neutral solution.
||We considered mixing a strong base with a weak acid, but we did not consider mixing a strong acid with a weak acid. Consider mixing 0.1M HNO3 and 0.1M HNO2. Predict the pH of the solution and the percent ionization of the nitrous acid. Rationalize your prediction using Le Châtelier's principle.
||Imagine taking a 0.5M solution of nitrous acid and slowing adding water to it. Looking at table 3, we see that, as the concentration of nitrous acid decreases, the percent ionization increases. By contrast, [H3O+] decreases. Rationalize these results using Le Châtelier's principle.
||We observed that mixing a strong acid and a strong base, in equal amounts and concentrations, produces a neutral solution, and that mixing a strong base with a weak acid, in equal amounts and concentrations, produces a basic solution. Imagine mixing a weak acid and a weak base, in equal amounts and concentrations. Predict whether the resulting solution will be acidic, basic, or neutral, and explain your prediction.
||Using the electronegativity arguments presented above, explain why, in general, compounds like M-O-H are bases rather than acids, when M is a metal atom. Predict the relationship between the properties of the metal atom M and the strength of the base MOH.
||Ionization of sulfuric acid H2SO4 produces HSO4-, which is also an acid. However, HSO4- is a much weaker acid than H2SO4. Using the conclusions from above, explain why HSO4- is a much weaker acid.
||Predict and explain the relative acid strengths of H2S and HCl. Predict and explain the relative acid strengths of H3PO4 and H3AsO4.
||Using arguments from above, predict and explain the relative acidity of phenol and methanol.