General Chemistry is a free introductory textbook on chemistry. See the editorial for more information....

Neon

Author: Robert Husted, Mollie Boorman

Atomic Number 10
Atomic Symbol Ne
CAS ID No. 7440-01-9
Atomic Weight 20.1830 amu
Electron Configuration [He] 2s2 2p6
Melting Point -248.4 C
Boiling Point -246 C
Density 0.900 g/cm3
History

(Gr. neos: new) Discovered by Ramsay and Travers in 1898. Neon is a rare gaseous element present in the atmosphere to the extent of 1 part in 65,000 of air. It is obtained by liquefaction of air and separated from the other gases by fractional distillation.

Isotopes

Natural neon is a mixture of three isotopes. Six other unstable isotopes are known.

Compounds

Neon is a very inert element,  however, it has been reported to form a compound with fluorine. It is still questionable if true compounds of neon exist, but evidence is mounting in favor of their existence. The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+) are known from optical and mass spectrometric studies. Neon also forms an unstable hydrate.

Properties

In a vacuum discharge tube, neon glows reddish orange.

It has over 40 times more refrigerating capacity per unit volume than liquid helium and more than three times that of liquid hydrogen. It is compact, inert, and is less expensive than helium when it meets refrigeration requirements.

Of all the rare gases, the discharge of neon is the most intense at ordinary voltages and currents.

Uses

Although neon advertising signs account for the bulk of its use, neon also functions in high-voltage indicators, lightning arrestors, wave meter tubes, and TV tubes. Neon and helium are used in making gas lasers. Liquid neon is now commercially available and is finding important application as an economical cryogenic refrigerant.




Last Update: 2011-02-16