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Standard Enthalpies, Free Energies of Formation, Standard Entropies

Author: Hans Lohninger

This table lists the standard enthalpies (ΔH), the free energies (ΔG) of formation of compounds from elements in their standard states, and the thermodynamic (third-law) entropies (S) of compounds at 298 K.

The state of the compound is specified by the following symbols:

(g) - gas
(l) = liquid
(s) - solid
(aq) = aqueous solution

Standard Enthalpies, Free Energies of Formation, and Standard Entropies at 298 K
Substance ΔH0
[kJ mol-1]
ΔG0
[kJ mol-1]
S0
[J mol-1 K-1]
(COOH)2 (aq) -818.3 -697.9 -
(COOH)2 (s) -826.8 -697.9 120
(NH4)2SO4 (s) -1179.3 -900.35 220.3
Ag (g) 289.2 250.4 172.892
Ag (s) 0.0 0.0 42.702
AgCl (s) -127.03 -109.72 96.11
AgNO2 (s) -44.371 19.85 128.1
AgNO3 (s) -123.1 -37.2 140.9
Al (g) 314 273 164.44
Al (s) 0.0 0.0 28.32
Al2O3 (s) -1669.8 -1576.4 50.986
Al3+ (aq) -524.7 -481.2 -313
AlCl3 (s) -653.4 -636.8 167
Ar (g) 0.0 0.0 154.7
As (g) 253.7 212.3 174.1
As(s, gray metal) 0.0 0.0 35
As4 (s) 149 105 289
B (g) 406 363 153.34
B (s) 0.0 0.0 6.53
B2H6 (g) 31 82.8 232.9
B2O3 (s) -1264 -1184 54.02
B5H9 (g) 62.8 166 275.6
Ba (g) 175.6 144.8 170.28
Ba (s) 0.0 0.0 67
Ba2+ (aq) -538.36 -560.7 13
BaCl22H2O (s) -1461.7 -1296 203
BaCl2H2O (s) -1165 -1059 167
BaCl2 (s) -860.06 -810.9 126
BBr3 (g) -187 -213 324.2
BBr3 (l) -221 -219 229
BCl3 (g) -395 -380 289.9
BCl3 (l) -418.4 -379 209
Be (g) 320.6 282.8 136.17
Be (s) 0.0 0.0 9.54
Be2+ (aq) -390 -356 -
BF3 (g) -1110 -1093 254.0
BF4 (aq) -1527 -1435 167
Br (g) 111.8 82.38 174.913
Br- (aq) -120.9 -102.82 80.71
Br2 (g) 30.7 3.14 245.35
Br2 (l) 0.0 0.0 152.3
C (g) 718.384 672.975 157.99
C(s, diamond) 1.896 2.866 2.439
C(s, graphite) 0.0 0.0 5.694
C2H2 (g) 226.75 209 200.82
C2H4 (g) 52.283 68.124 219.5
C2H5OH (g) -235.4 -168.6 282
C2H5OH (l) -277.63 -174.8 161
C2H6 (g) -84.667 -32.88 229.5
C2O42- (aq) -824.2 -674.9 51.0
C3H8 (g) -103.8 -23.5 269.9
C6H12O6 (s) -1260 -919.2 288.9
C6H6 (g) 82.927 129.65 269.2
C6H6 (l) 49.028 124.50 172.8
Ca (g) 192.6 158.9 154.8
Ca (s) 0.0 0.0 41.6
Ca2+ (aq) -542.96 -553.04 -55.2
CaCO3(s, aragonite) -1207.0 -1127.7 88.7
CaCO3(s, calcite) -1206.9 -1128.8 92.9
CH3CHO (aq) -208.7 - -
CH3CHO (g) -166.4 -133.7 266
CH3CHO (l) -195 - -
CH3COO- (aq) -488.871 -372.5 -
CH3COOH (aq) -488.453 -399.6 -
CH3COOH (l) -487.0 -392 160
CH3NH2 (g) -28 28 241.5
CH3OCH3 (g) -184.05 -112.92 267.1
CH3OH (aq) -245.9 -175.2 132.3
CH3OH (g) -201.3 -161.9 236
CH3OH (l) -238.64 -166.3 127
CH3SH (g) -12.4 0.88 254.8
CH4 (g) -74.848 -50.794 186.2
Cl (g) 121.39 105.40 165.09
Cl- (aq) -167.46 -131.17 55.2
Cl2 (g) 0.0 0.0 222.95
Cl2O (g) 76.15 93.72 266.5
ClF3 (g) -155 -114 278.7
ClO- (aq) - -37 43.1
ClO2 (g) 103 123 249
ClO2- (aq) -69.0 -10.7 101
ClO3- (aq) -98.32 -2.6 163
ClO4- (aq) -131.4 -8 182
CO (g) -110.523 -137.268 197.91
CO2 (aq) -412.9 -386.2 121
CO2 (s) -393.513 -394.383 213.64
CO32- (aq) -676.3 -528.1 -53.1
Cs (g) 78.78 51.21 175.49
Cs (s) 0.0 0.0 82.8
Cs+ (aq) -248 -282.0 133
CsBr (s) -394 -383 121
CsCl (s) -433.0 -404.1 -
CsF (s) -530.9 -500.0 -
CsI (s) -337 -333 130
Cu (g) 341.0 301.4 166.28
Cu (s) 0.0 0.0 33.3
Cu+ (aq) 51.9 50.2 -26
Cu2+ (aq) 64.39 64.98 -98.7
CuSO4 (s) -769.86 -661.9 113
F (g) 76.6 59.4 158.64
F- (aq) -329.1 -276.4 -9.6
F2 (g) 0.0 0.0 203
Fe (g) 404.5 358.8 100.3
Fe (s) 0.0 0.0 27.2
Fe2+ (aq) -87.9 -84.93 -113
Fe2O3(s, hematite) -822.1 -741.0 90.0
Fe3+ (aq) -47.7 -10.6 -293
Fe3O4(s, magnetite) -1121 -1014 146
Ge (g) 328.2 290.8 167.8
Ge (s) 0.0 0.0 42.42
H (g) 217.94 203.24 114.61
H+ (aq) 0.0 0.0 0.0
H2 (g) 0.0 0.0 130.59
H2CO3 (aq) -698.7 -623.4 191
H2O (g) -241.83 -228.59 188.72
H2O (l) -285.84 -237.19 69.940
H2O2 (aq) -191.1 -131.67 -
H2O2 (l) -187.6 -113.97 92
H2S (aq) -39 -27.4 122
H2S (g) -20.15 -33.02 205.6
H30+(aq) -285.84 -237.19 69.940
HBr (g) -36.2 -53.22 198.48
HC2O4- (aq) -818.8 -698.7 154
HCHO (aq) - -130 -
HCHO (g) -116 -110 218.7
HCl (aq) -167.46 -131.17 55.2
HCl (g) -92.312 -95.265 186.68
HClO (aq) -116.4 -79.956 130
HCO3 (aq) -691.1 -587.1 95.0
HCOO- (aq) -410.0 -334.7 91.6
HCOOH (aq) -410.0 -356.1 164
HCOOH (g) -362.6 -335.7 251
HCOOH (l) -409.2 -346.0 129.0
He (g) 0.0 0.0 126.1
HF (g) -269 -271 173.5
Hg (g) 60.84 31.8 174.9
Hg (l) 0.0 0.0 77.4
Hg2Cl2 (s) -264.9 -210.7 196
HgCl2 (s) -230 -186 144
HI (g) 26 1.3 206.32
I (g) 106.61 70.149 180.68
I- (aq) -55.94 -51.67 109.4
i-C4H10 (g) -131.6 -18.0 294.6
I2 (aq) 21 16.43 -
I2 (g) 62.241 19.4 260.58
I2 (s) 0.0 0.0 117
I3- (aq) -51.9 -51.51 174
IBr (g) 40.8 3.8 259
ICl (g) 18 -5.52 247.4
ICl3 (s) -88.3 -22.6 172
K (g) 90.00 61.17 160.23
K (s) 0.0 0.0 63.6
K+ (aq) -251.2 -282.2 103
KCl (g) -219 -235 239.5
KCl (s) -435.87 -408.32 82.68
Kr (g) 0.0 0.0 164.0
Li (g) 155.1 122.1 138.67
Li (s) 0.0 0.0 28.0
Li+ (aq) -278.46 -293.8 14
LiBr (s) -350.3 -339.9 69.0
LiCl (s) -408.8 -383.6 55.2
LiF (s) -612.1 -584.1 35.9
LiI (s) -271.1 -268 -
Mg (g) 150 115 148.55
Mg (s) 0.0 0.0 32.5
Mg2+ (aq) -461.96 -456.01 -118
MgCl2-6 H2O (s) -2499.6 -2115.6 366
MgCl2 (s) -641.83 -542.32 89.5
N (g) 472.646 455.512 153.195
n-C4H10 (g) -124.7 -15.7 310.0
n-C8H18 (l) -250.0 6.48 360.8
N2 (g) 0.0 0.0 191.49
N2H4 (l) 50.42 - -
N2O (g) 81.55 103.6 220.0
N2O22- (aq) -10.8 138 28
N2O4 (g) 9.661 98.286 304.3
N2O5 (s) -41:8 134 113
N3- (aq) 252 325 134
Na (g) 108.7 71.11 153.62
Na (s) 0.0 0.0 51.0
Na+ (aq) -239.66 -261.87 60.2
Na2 (g) 142.1 104.0 230.2
Na2CO3 (s) -1131 -1048 136
Na2O (s) -416 -377 72.8
Na2O2 (s) -504.6 -430.1 66.9
NaBr (s) -359.95 -347.7 -
NaCl (s) -411.00 -384.03 72.4
NaF (s) -569.0 -541.0 58.6
NaI (s) -288.0 -237 -
NaO2 (s) -259 -195 -
Ne (g) 0.0 0.0 144.1
NH2CONH2 (s) -333.2 -197.2 104.6
NH3 (aq) -80.83 -26.6 110
NH3 (g) -46.19 -16.64 192.5
NH4+ (aq) -132.8 -79.50 112.8
NH4Cl (s) -315.4 -203.9 94.6
NO (g) 90.374 86.688 210.62
NO2- (aq) -106 -34.5 125
NO2 (g) 33.85 51.840 240.5
NO3- (aq) -206.57 -110.6 146
O (g) 247.52 230.09 160.95
O2 (g) 0.0 0.0 205.03
O3 (g) 142 163.4 238
OH (g) 42.09 37.4 183.63
OH- (aq) -229.94 -157.30 -10.5
P (g) 314.5 279.1 163.1
P (s, red) -18 -14 29
P (s, white) 0.0 0.0 44.4
P4 (g) 54.89 24.4 279.9
Pb (g) 193.9 161.0 175.27
Pb (s) 0.0 0.0 64.89
Pb2+ (aq) 1.6 -24.3 21
PbO (s, red) -219.2 -189.3 67.8
PbO (s, yellow) -217.9 -188.5 69.5
PbO2 (s) -276.6 -219.0 76.6
PCl3 (g) -306.4 -286.3 311.7
PCl5 (g) -398.9 -324.6 353
Rb (g) 85.81 55.86 169.99
Rb (s) 0.0 0.0 69.5
Rb+ (aq) -246 -282.2 125
RbBr (s) -389.2 -378.1 108.3
RbCl (s) -430.58 -405 -
RbF (s) -551.9 -520.0 114
RbI (s) -328 -326 118.0
Rn (g) 0.0 0.0 176.1
S (g) 222.8 182.3 167.72
S (s, monoclinic) 0.30 0.096 32.6
S (s, rhombic) 0.0 0.0 31.9
SO2 (g) -296.9 -300.4 248.5
SO3 (g) -395.2 -370.4 256.2
S2- (aq) 41.8 83.7 -
Si (g) 368.4 323.9 167.86
Si (s) 0.0 0.0 18.7
SiO (g) -111.8 -137.1 206.1
SiO2 (s, quartz) -859.4 -805.0 41.84
Sn (g) 300 268 168.4
Sn (s, gray) 2.5 4.6 44.8
Sn (s, white) 0.0 0.0 51.5
SO (g) 79.58 53.47 221.9
Sr (g) 164 110 164.53
Sr (s) 0.0 0.0 54.4
Sr2+ (aq) -545.51 -557.3 -39
Ti (g) 469 423 100.20
Ti (s) 0.0 0.0 30.3
Ti2O3 (s) -1536 -1448 78.78
Ti3O5 (s) -2443 -2300 129.4
TiO2 (s, rutile III) -912.1 -852.7 50.25
TiO2+ (aq) - -577 -
TlI (s) -124 -124 123
TlI (g) 33 -13 274
W (g) 843.5 801.7 173.85
W (s) 0.0 0.0 33
Xe (g) 0.0 0.0 169.6
Zn (s) 0.0 0.0 41.6
ZnO (s) -348.0 -318.2 43.9




Last Update: 2011-02-20