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|See also: Fourier Synthesis, A/D Conversion|
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The Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem is a fundamental theorem in the field of information theory which has considerable effects on many aspects of modern technology (i.e. measurement equipment, telecommunications, etc).
The sampling theorem states that, when sampling a signal (i.e, converting from analog to digital), the sampling frequency must be greater than twice the bandwidth of the input signal in order to be able to reconstruct the original signal from the sampled version:
Fs > 2B
with B being the bandwidth and Fs being the sampling rate. Please note that the signal bandwidth is not necessarily equal to the highest frequency of the signal (the highest frequency is equal to the bandwidth only for baseband signals)