Transistor Basics is a free introductory textbook on transistors and their basic applications. See the editorial for more information....

Basic Types

Author: Leonard Krugman


Fig. 6-15. Crystal oscillators: (A) base controlled; (B) emitter controlled; (C) collector controlled.

The negative-resistance oscillator is easily adapted to crystal control, since crystals can operate as either series or parallel tuned circuits. Figure 6-15 (A) illustrates the basic circuit of the base-controlled crystal oscillator. The R-F choke which bypasses the crystal provides a d-c path to the base. A choke coil is used rather than a resistor for two important reasons: first, a resistor lowers the Q of the crystal; second, a resistor provides a positive feedback path for frequencies off resonance, thereby eliminating the major advantage of the base controlled circuit, namely, maximum regeneration at resonance, minimum regeneration off resonance. Since, in this case, the crystal is operated as a parallel resonant circuit, this oscillator is electrically equivalent to the base-controlled circuit illustrated in Fig. 6-12 (A).

Figures 6-15 (B) and 6-15 (C) represent the basic circuits of the emitter and collector-controlled crystal oscillators. The circuit shown in Fig. 6-15 (B) will operate satisfactorily if the base tank is replaced by a resistor. The inclusion of the tuned circuit, however, provides increased frequency stability and decreased harmonic distortion in the output signal. The series resonant circuit in the emitter arm of the collector-controlled oscillator illustrated in Fig. 6-15 (C) is added as a means of increasing the frequency stability. It can be replaced by a resistor.

Last Update: 2010-11-17