Problem 1 |
Each possible sequence of the 52 cards in a deck is equally probable. However, when you shuffle a deck and then examine the sequence, the deck is never ordered. Explain why in terms of microstates, macrostates, and entropy. |

Problem 2 |
Assess the validity of the statement, "In all spontaneous processes, the system moves toward a state of lowest energy." Correct any errors you identify. |

Problem 3 |
In each case, determine whether spontaneity is expected at low temperature, high temperature, any temperature, or no temperature:
ΔH°>0, ΔS°>0
ΔH°<0, ΔS°>0
ΔH°>0, ΔS°<0
ΔH°<0, ΔS°<0 |

Problem 4 |
Using thermodynamic equilibrium arguments, explain why a substance with weaker intermolecular forces has a greater vapor pressure than one with stronger intermolecular forces. |

Problem 5 |
Why does the entropy of a gas increase as the volume of the gas increases? Why does the entropy decrease as the pressure increases? |

Problem 6 |
For each of the following reactions, calculate the values of ΔS°, ΔH°, and ΔG° at T=298K and use these to predict whether equilibrium will favor products or reactants at T=298K. Also calculate K_{p}.
2CO(g)+O_{2}(g) 2CO_{2}(g)
O_{3}(g)+NO(g) NO_{2}(g)+O_{2}(g)
2O_{3}(g) 3 O_{2}(g) |

Problem 7 |
Predict the sign of the entropy for the reaction 2H_{2}(g)+O_{2}(g) 2H_{2}O(g) Give an explanation, based on entropy and the Second Law, of why this reaction occurs spontaneously. |

Problem 8 |
For the reaction H_{2}(g) 2H(g), predict the sign of both ΔH° and ΔS°. Should this reaction be spontaneous at high temperature or at low temperature? Explain. |

Problem 9 |
For each of the reactions in exercise 6, predict whether increases in temperature will shift the reaction equilibrium more towards products or more towards reactants. |

Problem 10 |
Using equation 7 and equation 9, show that for a given set of initial partial pressures where Q is larger than K_{p}, the reaction will spontaneously create more reactants. Also show that if Q is smaller than K_{p}, the reaction will spontaneously create more products. |