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Copper

Author: Robert Husted, Mollie Boorman

Atomic Number 29
Atomic Symbol Cu
CAS ID No. 7440-50-8
Atomic Weight 63.5400 amu
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s1
Melting Point 1084.6 C
Boiling Point 2563 C
Density 8.960 g/cm3
History

(Latin cuprum , from the island of Cyprus) It is believed that copper has been mined for 5,000 years.

Properties

Copper is reddish and takes on a bright metallic luster. It is malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of heat and electricity (second only to silver in electrical conductivity).

Sources

Copper occasionally occurs natively, and is found in many minerals such as cuprite, malachite, azurite, chalcopyrite, and bornite.

Large copper ore deposits are found in the U.S., Chile, Zambia, Zaire, Peru, and Canada. The most important copper ores are the sulfides, the oxides, and carbonates. From these, copper is obtained by smelting, leaching, and by electrolysis.

Uses

The electrical industry is one of the greatest users of copper. Copper's alloys -- brass and bronze -- are very important: all American coins are copper alloys and gun metals also contain copper.

Copper has wide use as an agricultural poison and as an algaecide in water purification. Copper compounds, such as Fehling's solution, are widely used in analytical chemistry tests for sugar.

Availability

High-purity copper (99.999+ percent) is available commercially.




Last Update: 2011-02-16